Nature Climate and temperature difference
Iran falls in a moderate and dry climate at north and approaches the tropic line at south. Such a geographical condition and distance from oceans and sea hurricanes has rendered Iran’s climate dry and barren, but thanks to its vastness and various natural features such as high mountains at north and west and vast lowlands in the center and the fact that it neighbours Caspian Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean at south the country enjoys a variety of climates.Iran is a high plateau neighbouring vast plains in Asia and its average elevation from sea level is approximately 1200m. Because of very high mountains (some of which are beyond 4000 m from sea level) and the Caspian Sea at north and Persian Gulf at south and the fact that the whole country is surrounded by mountains Iran is a rare country in which one can find different climates.
The mountains belt surrounding Iran is so high that prevents the moist winds blowing from Caspian Sea or Mediterranean Sea, Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean to reach inside the country. As a consequence the regions falling outside this mountainous belt enjoy humid weather and the regions behind these mountains are dry. As a result of such lofty mountainous belt the amount of rainfall at the southern shores of Caspian Sea is higher than other regions in the country. At the west the country enjoys Mediterranean climate and in the southern regions tropical and warm desert prevails. In we stem regions the summer is very warm in tin valleys and moderate or cold in mountainous resorts.
Due to humid climate at south the temperature is high. Maximum temperature in Khuzestan sometimes reaches 53°C. These regions are very hot in summer and moderate in winter and the temperature varies very slightly in south during day and night. However, because of the lofty Alborz Mountains Range at north and Zagros Mountain Range at west which operate like a very high barrier rainy clouds seldom penetrate into the central Iranian plateau and these regions are arid and barren. In fact, Iran joys three sorts of climates: desert and semi-desert climate, moderate mountainous climate and moderate Mazandaran climate.
The temperature in Iran varies from minus 30°C in Ardabil (Azerbaijan) to 70°C and above in southern regions and central deserts. Meanwhile average rainfall in the country varies between minus 50mm to above 2000mm. As a result of such variables and because of outside and inner factors the country enjoys different climates. The farthest southern part of Iran is only one or two degree close to the global tropic belt and as a consequence the southern regions in the country suffer from warm weather in all seasons. At north (with the exception of the seashores which are affected by the Caspian Sea) warm weather is seldom notable in summers and nearly three or four months in the year the weather is very cold.
Regions exposed to sea enjoy heavy rainfall and are enriched with dense jungles whereas regions surrounded by lofty mountains are dry and barren. As mentioned above there are three types of distinct climates in Iran:
- Desert and semi-desert climate which is covers vast acres of central parts of Iran and the southern shores of Persian Gulf. One feature of such climate is long periods of warm and dry weather (sometimes 7 months in a year). The amount of rainfall in such regions varies between 25 to 30 mm.
- Mountainous climate is divided into two zones: Cold mountainous climate which dominate approximately 40,000 sq. km of Iran with average annual rainfall of 500mm per annul. Moderate mountainous climate which dominates approximately 300,000 sq. km in Iran with average annual rainfall of between 250mm to 600mm.
- Mazandarani climate: Mazandaran Province is a narrow strip between Caspian Sea and Alborz Mountain range in which the amount of annual rainfall varies between 600 to 2000mm per annum.